Direction: Read the given passage and answer the following question. Some words are highlighted to help you answer some of the question.
The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP) is truly transformative. There have been few policies in Indian history with its sweep and depth. One parallel is the first National Education Policy that emerged from the Kothari Commission in 1968. Ten years after that policy was approved by the government, J.P. Nayak, who was member secretary of the Kothari panel, wrote a book, Education Commission and After. Nayak, a much-revered figure in the field, wrote it as a reflection on what got done and what did not in those first ten years. It’s a nuanced book, as one would expect of Nayak. However, at its core, it was an expression of disappointment at the partial and haphazard implementation of the 1968 policy.I think Nayak was too early in his judgement. Without doubt, the implementation of that policy was far from what it should have been. However, as the decades have passed, it has become clearer that the direction and principles set by our first education policy have shaped Indian education deeply and fundamentally. The effect of any omission or commission of specific actions under that policy has not mattered as much. It is useful to remember that experience in the context of NEP 2020.
The latest NEP aims to transform the basic architecture, culture and approach of Indian education. Not by jettisoning the past, but by building on the good parts of it, while squarely confronting the bad. Undoubtedly, the NEP 2020 will leave a deep imprint on India over the long term, but there is also a short term set of effects which the policy can achieve if many of its actions are systematically and urgently implemented by Indian states. This involves the schooling part of the new policy, which is the responsibility of these states.
Our school education faces an unprecedented crisis, one of enormous learning losses for about 220 million children because schools were shut for over 18 months. Unless addressed comprehensively and quickly, this deficit will harm an entire generation of children and the country. Quick implementation of the relevant parts of the NEP by Indian states can provide some effective measures to deal with this emergency. Let me list a few of the most important ones.
First, the NEP’s comprehensive and systematic response to tackle problems of basic literacy and numeracy in Indian schools that existed even before the pandemic offers us exactly the platform we require to address the covid-triggered learning crisis. The real on-the-ground measures that the policy envisions would greatly strengthen efforts at recovering deep losses on foundational literacy and numeracy. Combined with the policy’s large commitment to transforming the care and education of the youngest children, not only could we emerge from today’s learning crisis, but perhaps come out ahead if the investments envisioned by the NEP are made in the ‘Foundational Stage’(ages 3 to 8).
Second, the bold vision of a new National Curriculum Framework (NCF), intended to develop real capacities, nurture the dispositions of good and engaged citizens, and develop constitutional values in our children, while being less burdensome and moving away from rote learning, is exactly what is needed in this time of a learning crisis. In simple terms, we must reconfigure and cut down the syllabus to the essentials that enable those curricular goals. Already, processes are underway to develop the NCF, with significant inputs from states. While this process of NCF development would take some time, as it should, the interim outputs can be used by states to appropriately reconfigure the education syllabus across classes such that lost learning can be recovered in a reasonable period of time.
Choose the most appropriate synonym of the word ‘revered’ as highlighted in the given passage.
Read the passage carefully and answer the question according to the passage:
The Kerala Governor has stirred up a hornet’s nest by demanding the discontinuation of a uniquely Kerala welfare scheme that covers around 1,200 people who served on the personal staff of Ministers, leaders of Opposition and government Chief Whips. The number of people who are eligible for lifetime pensions from the exchequer is set to swell to around 1,500 when the additional beneficiaries, who were recruited during the previous government, are added. Governor Arif Mohammad Khan has called for an end to this practice, terming it unconstitutional and against constitutional morality. The State spends around ₹8 crore every year on these pensions, according to estimates. The beneficiaries, mostly political activists, draw a minimum pension of ₹3,550 a month, and dearness allowance. In 1959, the State allowed Ministers to have 20 members on their personal staff; over the years that number has risen to the current 30. In 1994, when the Congress led United Democratic Front was in power, pensions were sanctioned through an executive order, with retrospective effect from 1982. In the beginning, the eligibility for this cohort was three years in service as opposed to 10 years for regular government employees. As the pension scheme for its regular employees in general became tighter, the government made flagrant exceptions for this class. They are now eligible for pensions after two years. The CPI(M)led ruling Left Democratic Front has said it would not heed the Governor’s demand, and that the pension scheme would continue
The pension scheme for the personnel staff has become a safety net for the fortunate among the cavalry of political parties, but it is a cruel insult to the swelling ranks of the State’s unemployed and underemployed youth. As the Governor has pointed out, there is also a pattern of replacing one set of staff with another after two years, in order to cover more people under the pension scheme. Some recent controversies in Kerala also brought to the fore other innovative modes of nepotism, such as arbitrary recruitment of consultants. Towards the end of the previous government, seven people were appointed to the CM’s personal staff with retrospective effect, making them eligible for pensions. All parties in Kerala had agreed to this arrangement, a source of political patronage in the resource starved State. The Governor has now disrupted that comfort zone by not merely challenging it but also launching a public campaign against it. The fact that Kerala is in a financial crisis only makes this pension scheme more unacceptable to the general public. All political parties must take note of the resentment that this preferential treatment to their protégés can create against the political class in general. They must work together for a wealth creating consensus in the State rather than designing and defending such indefensible schemes.
Direction : Read the following passage and using given options, answer the respective question that follow them.
South Africa’s lead bower Kagiso Rabada took three wickets in 11 balls to stem an early flow of runs for India, who were 188-6 at lunch on the third day of the second test at the Wanders in Johannesburg on Wednesday.Rabada brought an end to a potentially devasting 111-run third wickets partnership between CheteshwarPujara and Ajinkaya Rahane, to leave the test still delicately poised as India looked to set their hosts an imposing target to chase.India lead by 161 runs with four wickets in hand on a wicket expected to continue favouring the seamers and where a target of over 200 is going to be difficult to chase down.Pujara and Rahane picked up where they left off on Tuesday as they took it to the home bowling, adding 66runs, in the first hour, to the overnight score of 85-2.They were looking to take the game away from the hosts,as they both reached half centuries and put their team on course for a winning 2-0 lead in the three-match series, and a first-ever series success in South Africa.But Rabada checked their progress by having Rahane caught behind for 58 and then Pujara trapped leg before wicket in his next over out for 53.Rabada added the wicket of Rishabh Pant the over after. The India wicketkeeper was caught behind by Kyle Verreyne without scoring and after facing just three balls.South Africa got another fortune breakthrough just before lunch when Ravichandran Ashwin played at a loose ball going down leg from Lungi Ngidi and was caught by wicketkeeper Verreyne for 16.HanumaVihar on six not out and Shardul Thakur on four will resume after lunch.
Who were taking the game away from hosts ?
South Africa’s lead bower Kagiso Rabada took three wickets in 11 balls to stem an early flow of runs for India, who were 188-6 at lunch on the third day of the second test at the Wanders in Johannesburg on Wednesday.Rabada brought an end to a potentially devasting 111-run third wickets partnership between CheteshwarPujara and Ajinkaya Rahane, to leave the test still delicately poised as India looked to set their hosts an imposing target to chase. India lead by 161 runs with four wickets in hand on a wicket expected to continue favouring the seamers and where a target of over 200 is going to be difficult to chase down.Pujara and Rahane picked up where they left off on Tuesday as they took it to the home bowling, adding 66runs, in the first hour, to the overnight score of 85-2.They were looking to take the game away from the hosts,as they both reached half centuries and put their team on course for a winning 2-0 lead in the three-match series, and a first-ever series success in South Africa.But Rabada checked their progress by having Rahane caught behind for 58 and then Pujara trapped leg before wicket in his next over out for 53.Rabada added the wicket of Rishabh Pant the over after. The India wicketkeeper was caught behind by Kyle Verreyne without scoring and after facing just three balls. South Africa got another fortune breakthrough just before lunch when Ravichandran Ashwin played at a loose ball going down leg from Lungi Ngidi and was caught by wicketkeeper Verreyne for 16.HanumaVihar on six not out and Shardul Thakur on four will resume after lunch.
who were taking the game away from hosts ?
Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The crisis of plastic waste in mountains: The threat of environmental sustainability sees no borders, and this holds relevance for mountains as well. One such environmental tragedy that has befallen our mountains is plastic waste. A large contributor of plastic waste in the mountains is packaging, which, if not managed properly, can end up in landfills, streams and rivers, causing detrimental effects. This challenge, coupled with the high tourist footfalls that these regions witness, overloads waste-management systems in ways that result in waste ending up in forests, valleys and streams. An issue as large and complex as plastic waste requires commitment and action from multiple stakeholders for its effective management. The participation of all these stakeholders is crucial for the development of inclusive, resilient and sustainable models for waste management in the hill towns of India. Collaboration is key to building a sustainable ecosystem: The success of business relies on a healthy planet. It is important for companies that pledge sustainability to make it a part of their corporate DNA. There is a need to work collaboratively to protect the health of these habitats and adopt sustainable best practices for cleaner and greener mountains. Businesses must act as responsible environment stewards and strive to continuously reduce the waste and emissions that degrade the environment, while simultaneously optimizing production measures through a comprehensive action plan.
Key interventions can make a difference: To achieve the goal of diverting waste from landfills and ensuring sustainability, a key first step is to streamline the waste supply chain from the source to end. In our hill towns, given the terrain and weather conditions, streamlining the segregated collection, transportation, storage and end-of-life disposal of waste is a challenge. In certain regions, the infrastructure used for collection and storage is also insufficient. Hence, efforts have to be intensified to ensure that the requisite infrastructure and staff are put in place to deal with the specific needs of different cities. Employment of digital monitoring systems to track the entire journey of waste can make it easier to identify problems early on and tackle them in real time.
To bring about a sustainable change, it is important to change perspectives, habits and common behaviours vis-a-vis waste. Across Indian hill towns, given their high tourism appeal, widespread littering is a major concern. Litter that ends up in crevices and valleys is especially difficult to clean up, and usually requires deep descents with special equipment. To overcome this challenge, it is important to foster partnerships among local non-profit organizations, trader associations, market associations and schools for conducting clean-up drives and providing bins at key locations, among other interventions. Awareness drives that include door-to-door campaigns, sector-specific training modules for hotels, markets and households, and the dissemination of information can have a positive impact on streamlining waste.
Which of the following words is most similar in meaning to the word “pledge” as given in the passage?
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