Bribery Risk Matrix 2021:
Why in the news?
Recently, Bribery Risk Matrix 2021 was released by anti-bribery standard setting organisation(TRACE).
- India ranked 82nd with a score of 44.(2021)
- In 2019, India’s rank stood 78 position with a score of 48 while in 2020 the country was ranked 77 with a score of 45.
- India performed better than Pakistan, China, Nepal and Bangladesh. Meanwhile, Bhutan was ranked 20 places above India, at 62nd.
- North Korea, Turkmenistan, Venezuela and Eritrea posed the highest commercial bribery risk, while Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden and New Zealand had the lowest.
The TRACE Matrix was originally developed in 2014 in collaboration with RAND Corporation.
- It is updated annually by TRACE.
- The TRACE Bribery Risk Matrix (TRACE Matrix) measures business bribery risk in 194 jurisdictions, territories, and autonomous and semi-autonomous regions.
- The matrix aggregates relevant data obtained from leading public interest and international organisations, including the United Nations, World Bank, V-Dem Institute at the University of Gothenburg and World Economic Forum.
- This data helps companies to assess the likely risk of bribe demands in each country and to design compliance and due diligence programs tailored to that risk.
The score is based on four factors:
- Business interactions with the government.
- Anti-bribery deterrence and enforcement.
- Government and civil service transparency.
- Capacity for civil society oversight, including the role of the media.
Steps taken by India to stop the corruption:
- Government of India, in pursuance of its commitment to “Zero Tolerance Against Corruption” has taken several measures to combat corruption which, inter alia, include:
- Systemic improvements and reforms to provide transparent citizen-friendly services and reduce corruption.
These, inter alia, include:
- Disbursement of welfare benefits directly to the citizens under various schemes of the Government in a transparent manner through the Direct Benefit Transfer initiative.
- Implementation of E-tendering in public procurements.
- Introduction of e-Governance and simplification of procedure and systems.
- Introduction of Government procurement through the Government e- Marketplace (GeM).
- The Central Vigilance Commission, though created in 1964, became an independent statutory body only in 2003 by an Act of parliament based on a judgement of the supreme court.
- Its mandate is to oversee the vigilance administration and to advise and assist the executive in matters relating to corruption.
- It investigates cases of corruption arising out of complaints or detection by vigilance wings in the various departments and recommends punishment wherever required.
- It is then for the executive to punish the individual official.
The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 :
- It is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to combat corruption in government agencies and public sector businesses in India.
In 2018, some changes were made in it, which are as follows:
- Punishment for bribe-taking enhanced: Minimum punishment of 3 yrs, extendable up to 7 yrs with fine; from the earlier 6 months, with extension up to 3 yrs.
- Gifts criminalised: Gifts received for established undue advantage/mala-fide motive are now considered an act of corruption.
- Superiors to be held if an employee/agent has bribed with their approval, for advancement of the organisation’s interests.
- For the first time, the giving of bribe has now been made a direct offence on par with taking of bribe.
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