President Kovind presents Vir Chakra, Kirti Chakra and Shaurya Chakra:


Why in the news?

Recently, President Ram Nath Kovind presented Gallantry Awards and Distinguished Service Decorations in Defence Investiture Ceremony at Rashtrapati Bhavan.

Key highlights:

  • Gallantry Awards have been instituted by the Government of India to honour the acts of bravery and sacrifice of the officers/personnel of the Armed Forces as well as other lawfully constituted forces and civilians. 
  • The order of precedence of these awards is Vir Chakra, Kirti Chakra and Shaurya Chakra.
  • These gallantry awards are announced twice in a year , first on the occasion of the Republic Day and on the occasion of the Independence Day.
  • During the awards ceremony, President Kovind accorded several gallantry awards like the Shaurya Chakra, Kirti Chakra and the Vir Chakra. 
  • The Vir Chakra was conferred to Balakot Airstrike hero Indian Air Force Wing Commander (now Group Captain) Abhinandan Varthaman. 
  • President Kovind accorded the Shaurya Chakra (posthumously) to Naib Subedar Sombir for killing an A++ category terrorist during an operation in Jammu and Kashmir. 
  • Major Vibhuti Shankar Dhoundiyal was also accorded the Shaurya Chakra (posthumously). 
  • President Ram Nath Kovind accorded the second-highest peacetime gallantry award Kirti Chakra (posthumously) to Sapper Prakash Jadhav from the Corps of Engineers.
  • President Kovind also conferred the Shaurya Chakra gallantry award to Major Maheshkumar Bhure who is an alumnus of Sainik School Satara.

Param Vir Chakra:

  • Param Vir Chakra or PVC is India's highest military decoration which is awarded for most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice, in the presence of an enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air.
  •  It was introduced on 26 January, 1950 on the first Republic Day. 
  • This award may be given posthumously.
  • 'Param Vir Chakra'. In Sanskrit, Param means Ultimate, Vir (Pronounced as Veer) which means Brave and Chakra means wheel.
  • First awarded: to Maj.Somnath Sharma.

'Kirti Chakra: 

  • It is an Indian military decoration awarded for bravery, self-sacrifice away from the field of battle.
  •  Kirti Chakra may be awarded to civilians as well, in addition to the military personnel. 
  • Kirti Chakra is the second-highest peacetime decoration of India and is equivalent to Maha Vir Chakra.
  • On January 4, 1952, Kirti Chakra was established as the 'Ashoka Chakra, Class II' by the then President of India, w.e.f. from August 15, 1947. On January 27, 1967, the decoration was renamed as 'Kirti Chakra'. 

Shaurya Chakra:

  • It is an Indian military decoration awarded for gallantry, otherwise than in the face of the enemy.
  •  It may be awarded to civilians, also as military personnel, sometimes posthumously.
  • On 4 January, 1952, it was established as the Ashoka Chakra, Class III by the Government of India, with effect from 15 August, 1947. 

On 27 January, 1967, the decoration was renamed as 'Shaurya Chakra' awarded for gallantry.

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