Current Affairs search results for tag: national
By admin: Dec. 6, 2021

1. Anemia in Children: leading to child growth failure

Tags: National News

According to the 5th report of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2019-2021, a higher proportion of children aged 6 to 59 months have been found to be anaemic compared to NFHS-4 (2015-2016).

Highlights:

  • The share of anaemic children in NFHS-5 (2019-21) increased by 8.5% points compared to NFHS-4 (2015-16) and was closer to levels of NFHS-3 (2005-2006).
  • In 30 out of 36 states/UT’s one half the children in age group 6-59 months are found to be anaemic.
  • The high share of children were found anaemic in the several north and western states in rural and urban areas.
  • Assam, Mizoram and Chattisgarh recorded the highest increases.
  • Gujarat had the highest share of children (79.7%) who were anaemic.

State-wise percentage of children aged 6-59 months who were anaemic according to NFHS-5

Ladakh - 92.5%

Madhya Pradesh - 72.7%

Rajasthan - 71.5%

Uttar Pradesh - 66.4%

Gujarat - 79.7%

Bihar - 69.4%

Kerala - 39.4%

Tamil Nadu 57.4%

Anaemia

Anaemia results from a lack of red blood cells or dysfunctional red blood cells in the body. This leads to reduced oxygen flow to the body's organs.

Symptoms may include fatigue, skin pallor, shortness of breath, light-headedness, dizziness or a fast heartbeat.

National Family Health Survey

National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a country-wide survey conducted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, with the International Institute for Population Sciences serving as the nodal agency.

By admin: Dec. 6, 2021

2. 57th Raising Day of BSF held at Jaisalmer

Tags: National News

  • Union Home and Cooperation Minister Shri Amit Shah addressed the 57th Raising Day celebrations of the Border Security Force in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan.
  • On this occasion, the Union Home Minister said that for the first time after the establishment of the BSF in 1965, the Modi government has decided to celebrate the Foundation Day of the BSF in a border district.
  • It was decided to create the BSF after the 1965 war and today it is the largest border guarding force in the world. 

By admin: Dec. 6, 2021

3. India -Maldives military exercise

Tags: National News

11th Edition of Exercise EKUVERIN between India & Maldives will be conducted at Kadhdhoo Island, Maldives from 06 to 19 December 2021.

  • The exercise will enhance synergy & inter-operability between Armed Forces of both the Nations in terms of understanding transnational terrorism both on land & at sea, conducting Counter Terrorism & Counter Insurgency Operations and sharing best military practices and experiences.

By admin: Dec. 6, 2021

4. India’s first privately build Cryogenic Engine

Tags: National News

Hyderabad­ based Skyroot Aerospace successfully tested Dhawan­1, thus making it country’s first privately developed, fully cryogenic rocket engine. 

The Cryogenic engine has been named after Satish Dhawan, who was the third chairman of ISRO. He pioneered the development of advanced space launch capabilities of India.

It runs on two high performance rocket propellants — liquid natural gas (LNG) and liquid oxygen (LoX).

The company has been founded by ex-IITians Naga Bharath D. and C. Pawan Kumar.

The company will use the engine as the upper stage of its Vikram-2 launch vehicle that can carry payloads up to 720 kg to low earth orbit. 

The engine has been completely 3D printed and made in India. The company used a superalloy for 3D printing the engine, which reduced the manufacturing time by 95%.

Cryogenic engines are one of most complex technologies to  develop and so far only six countries have these launch vehicles including the US, China, Russia, France, Japan, and India. India used its first GSLV in 2001.

In India the Cryogenic Engine is being developed by ISRO(Indian Space Research Organisation).

 At least two private space companies – American Blue Origin and European Arianespace – have developed cryogenic engines as well. 

Cryogenic Engine 

Cryogenics is the branch of Physics that deals with the production, effects and uses of a wide variety of materials at very low temperatures. The cryogenic temperature range has been defined as from −150 °C (−238 °F) to absolute zero (−273 °C or −460 °F), 

A Cryogenic rocket stage is more efficient and provides more thrust for every kilogram of propellant it burns compared to solid and earth-storable liquid propellant rocket stages. Specific impulse (a measure of the efficiency) achievable with cryogenic propellants (liquid Hydrogen and liquid Oxygen) is much higher compared to earth storable liquid and solid propellants, giving it a substantial payload advantage. Oxygen liquifies at -183 degree C and Hydrogen at -253 degree C.


Superalloy

Superalloys are high-strength, often complex alloys that are resistant to high temperatures and severe mechanical stress and that exhibit high surface stability. They are commonly classified into three major categories: nickel-based, cobalt-based, and iron-basedNickel-based superalloys predominate in the turbine section of jet engines where temperatures reach 1200–1400 °C. Although they have little inherent resistance to oxidation at high temperatures, they gain desirable properties through the addition of cobalt, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, aluminum, and niobium.


3D Printing

3D printing or additive manufacturing uses computer-aided designing to make prototypes or working models of objects by laying down successive layers of materials such as plastic, resin, thermoplastic, metal, fibre or ceramic.It is basically a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file.

This is opposite of “Subtractive Manufacturing” which works on removal of material to create a desired object. It is similar to a man who cuts a stone to create a sculpture.

The first working 3-D printer was created in 1984 by Charles W. Hull of 3-D Systems Corp.

One of the key applications for such products is in the medical and allied sector.

The USA remains the global leader in 3D printing, with more than 35% market share

By admin: Dec. 5, 2021

5. Ram Nath Kovind inaugurates centennial year celebration of the PAC

Tags: National News

  • President Ram Nath Kovind on Saturday inaugurated the centennial year celebration of the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) in the Central Hall of Parliament on Saturday. The PAC is one of the most powerful financial committees of Parliament.
  • Vice-President M. Venkaiah Naidu, Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla, and Chairperson, Public Accounts Committee of Parliament of India, Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury, along with Union Ministers, MPs and presiding officers of the State legislative bodies, were present in the House.

Public Accounts Committee

  • The Committee on Public Accounts is the oldest Parliamentary Committee and was first constituted in 1921.  
  • Members of the Committee
  • The members of the committee are elected by the Parliament every year. 
  • The Committee consists of 22 Members, 15 Members are elected by Lok Sabha and 7 Members of the Rajya Sabha are associated with it.  
  • The Chairman of the Committee is appointed by the Lok Sabha Speaker amongst its Members.

Function of the Committee

  • The Public Accounts Committee examine the report of the Comptroller and Auditor General report to see that :
  • The Government of India has spent the money for the purpose which was mentioned in the union budget.
  • Whether there was any excess expenditure by the government.
  • It also examines the accounts of the Government Corporations and Companies.

Note 

Normally an opposition party member is chosen as the chairman of the PAC.

Currently Congress Party leader  Adhir Ranjan Chaudhary is the chairman.

By admin: Dec. 4, 2021

6. Indian Government brings bills to extend the tenure of ED and CBI

Tags: National News

The  Government of India has introduced two bills, the Central Vigilance Commission (Amendment) Bill 2021 and Delhi Special Establishment (Amendment) Bill 2021 in the Lok Sabha which seek to replace theThe Central Vigilance Commission (Amendment) Ordinance, 2021  and The Delhi Special Police Establishment (Amendment) Ordinance, 2021  promulgated on 14 November  2021. 

  • The bill was introduced by the Minister of State for Personnel and Training Dr. Jitendra Singh.

 Central Vigilance Commission (Amendment) Bill 2021 

  • It amends the Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003.  
  • The 2003 Act provides for the constitution of a Central Vigilance Commission to conduct inquiries into offences  committed under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. 
  • Under the 2003 Act, the Director of Enforcement is appointed by the Central government, on the recommendation of a committee.
  • This Committee is chaired by the Central Vigilance Commissioner, and includes the Secretaries from the Ministries of Home affairs, and Personnel, and the Revenue Department. 
  • The Director of Enforcement has a tenure of minimum two years.
  • The bill provides that the tenure of the Director may be extended by up to one year at a time, till the completion of five years from the initial appointment.  Such extensions may be granted in public interest, on the recommendation of the Committee.

Delhi Special Establishment (Amendment) Bill 2021 

  • It amends the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946.
  • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was set up under this act .
  • The Act provides for the appointment of the Director of the Delhi Special Police Establishment (Central Bureau of Investigation). 
  • The Director is appointed by the Central government on recommendation of a Committee consisting of the: (i) Prime Minister (Chairperson), (ii) Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha, and (iii) Chief Justice of India (CJI) or a judge of the Supreme Court nominated by the CJI
  • Under the Act, the Director has a tenure of minimum two years.
  • The bill permits extension of the tenure by up to one year at a time, till the completion of five years from the initial date of appointment.

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

The CBI (the premier investigating agency of the Central Government) was set up in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs.

  • Now, this department comes under the administrative control of the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.
  • The Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–1964) recommended the establishment of the CBI.
  • Headed by a Director, CBI:
    • provides assistance to the Central Vigilance Commission and Lokpal.
    • coordinates investigations on behalf of Interpol Member countries.
  • The CBI has jurisdiction to investigate offences pertaining to 69 Central laws, 18 State Acts and 231 offences in the IPC.
  • CBI is one of the 26 Indian Government Organisations which are exempted from the provisions of Section 24 of the Right to Information Act.
  • Headquarters: CGO Complex, New Delhi
  • Motto: Industry, Impartiality, Integrity
  • Director-General: Subodh Kumar Jaiswal

 

Enforcement Directorate

  • The Directorate of Enforcement (ED) is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency (under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance) responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India.
  • On 1st May 1956, an ‘Enforcement Unit’ was formed, in the Department of Economic Affairs, for handling Exchange Control Laws violations under Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947. In the year 1957, this Unit was renamed as ‘Enforcement Directorate’.
  • The prime objective of the Enforcement Directorate is the enforcement of two key Acts of the Government of India
    • The Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999 (FEMA) and
    • The Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002 (PMLA)

By admin: Dec. 4, 2021

7. 6 Lakh Indians renounced citizenship in last 5 years

Tags: National News

  • More than Six lakh Indians renounced citizenship in the past five years, as per the data shared by the Ministry of Home Affairs to Lok Sabha. 
  • About 40% of the citizenship renunciation requests come from the United States, followed by Australia and Canada, which amount to a chunk of around 30% of such requests.
  • According to information available with the Ministry of External Affairs, a total of 1,33,83,718 Indian nationals are living in foreign countries as on date.
  • Regarding granting Indian citizenship, MHA replied that a total of 10,645 people had applied for Indian citizenship in the same period out of which 4177 was granted. 
  • Of this, the maximum are from Pakistan (7,782), followed by Afghanistan (795), the US (227), Sri Lanka (205), Bangladesh (184), Nepal (167) and Kenya (185).

By admin: Dec. 4, 2021

8. Government seeks Rs 25,000 crore for MGNREGS from Parliament

Tags: National News

Central Government has put before the parliament a supplementary demand of grant in the amount of Rs 25000 Crore for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) scheme 

The demand-driven rural jobs scheme ran out of funds midway through the current fiscal year, leading to pending payments for wages and materials.

Initial budgetary allocation for MGNREGA in the financial year 2021-22 was Rs 73000 Crore

Continuing economic distress in rural India due to the effects of Covid, has led to increased demand for jobs under the scheme

Last year, with the COVID­19 pandemic forcing lockdowns and widespread unemployment, MGNREGA, with a revised budget of Rs1.1 lakh crore, acted as a lifeline for India’s rural population.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) scheme

  • NREGA Act was passed by the Indian Parliament on 23rd August 2005 but it came into force on February 6, 2006.  On 2nd October 2009 an amendment was made in the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005, to change the nomenclature of the Act from NREGA to MGNREGA
  • The mandate of the MGNREGA is to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Currently the pay rate is about Rs 210 per day.
  • It is now operational in all the rural District of India 
  • The scheme is under the administrative control of the Union Ministry of  Rural Development.

Union Rural Development and Panchayati Raj  Minister: Giriraj Singh.

By admin: Dec. 4, 2021

9. Government seeks 62000 Crore for Air India

Tags: National News

  • The Government has sought Parliament’s nod to infuse ₹62,000 crore as supplementary grant to Air India Assets Holding Limited (created for disinvestment of Air India and its subsidiaries), for debt and other liabilities of Air India.
  • Air India Assets Holding Limited is a Government Owned special purpose vehicle (SPV). This company holds Air India’s debt, liabilities and some non-core assets such as land and buildings (worth 14718 Crore). This company was set up to clean the airline’s balance sheet ahead of its privatisation.
  • Out of this 62000 Crore, 28844 Crore is the net liability on government after privatisation whereas the rest 33105 Crore includes interest liabilities toward working capital and aircraft loans, lease rentals, owings to oil companies and to the Airports Authority of India. This is what the Government has provided for in the supplementary demand for grants

Air India Disinvestment 

On 25 October 2021 ,Government of India signed an agreement with Tata Group for selling off its entire 100% share in Air India to Talace Pvt Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Sons Pvt.Tata Group .

The deal was of Rs 18,000 crore of which Tata will pay Rs 2,700 crore to the government and Tata will take over the Rs 15,300 crore of the Air India debt .

The Government of India was to clear the rest of the debt  of Air India.

To meet these requirements the government of India is seeking Rs 63,000 from Lok Sabha .

Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV)

  • A special purpose vehicle (SPV) is a legal entity created by a parent company but managed as a separate organization. It is designed to isolate the financial risk of certain assets or ventures of the parent company. Companies create SPVs to securitize assets, make it easier to transfer assets (in case of Air India disinvestment), spread the risk of assets or new ventures, or protect assets from risks associated with the parent company.
  • Its legal status as a separate company makes its obligations secure even if the parent company goes bankrupt.


Supplementary Grant

  • Supplementary grant is the amount needed when the amount authorised by the Parliament through the appropriation act for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for that year.
  • These grants are presented and passed by the Parliament before the end of the financial year (1st April to 31st March)
  • Constitutional Provision: Article 115 pertains to supplementary, additional or excess grants.

Appropriation Act - 

  • Through this act, the government gets the power to withdraw funds from the Consolidated Fund of India for meeting the expenditure during the financial year.
  • As per article 114 of the Constitution, the government can withdraw money from the Consolidated Fund only after receiving approval from Parliament.
  • The Appropriation Bill is introduced in the Lok Sabha after discussions on Budget proposals and Voting on Demand for Grants.
  • The defeat of an Appropriation Bill in a parliamentary vote would lead to the resignation of a government or a general election.
  • Both the Finance bill and Appropriation bill are classified as Money bills but while the Finance Bill contains provisions on financing the expenditure of the government, an Appropriation Bill specifies the quantum and purpose for withdrawing money.

By admin: Dec. 1, 2021

10. Barbados becomes a Republic

Tags: International News

The Caribbean island nation of Barbadosdeclared  itself a republic on 30 November,a move that coincides with the 55th anniversary of its independence from Britain.

The country of some 3,00,000 citizens is no longer a constitutional monarchy and will not pledge allegiance to the Queen of Britain.

On November 29, Barbados, once known as Little England, swore in its first President, Sandra Mason.

However, it will remain a part of the Commonwealth. 

Barbados capital  Bridgetown

Currency: Barbados Dollar

Prime Minister: Mia Mottley 

Commonwealth of Nations or Commonwealth

  • Commonwealth of Nations is an association of countries that were once ruled by Britain. The current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949. 
  • The head of the Commonwealth is Britain's, Queen Elizabeth II.
  • At present, there are 54 members Including India 

Headquarters:London , England