1. PV Sindhu among top 25 highest-paid female athletes in Forbes annual list
India's badminton star PV Sindhu is the only Indian sportsperson to feature in the top 25 of Forbes' annual list of the world's highest-paid female athletes.
- Sindhu, the 2016 Tokyo Olympics silver medalist, is ranked 12th in the list, which is topped by Japanese tennis star Naomi Osaka.
- The 27-year-old Sindhu, who won the singles gold and doubles silver at the Commonwealth Games in Birmingham earlier this year, earned $7 million out of her total earnings of $7.1 million.
- For the third year in a row, Osaka topped Forbes' annual list of the world's highest-paid female athletes. The list is once again dominated by tennis players.
- Naomi Osaka, the world number 42, topped the list with a total annual earning of $51.1 million, while Serena Williams is a distant second with $41.3 million and Eileen Gu, the freestyle skier, third with a total coffer of $20.1 million.
List of 15 highest paid female athletes of the year
- Naomi Osaka (Japan) – Tennis – $51.1 million
- Serena Williams (USA) – Tennis – $41.3 million
- Elieen Gu (China) – Skiing – $20.1 million
- Emma Raducanu (UK) – Tennis – $18.7 million
- Iga Swiatek (Poland) – Tennis – $14.9 million
- Venus Williams (USA) – Tennis – $12.1 million
- Coco Gauff (USA) – Tennis – $11.1 million
- Simone Biles (USA) – Gymnastics – $10 million
- Jessica Pegula (USA) – Tennis – $7.6 million
- Minjee Lee (Australia) – Golf – $7.3 million
- Candace Parker (USA) - Basketball - $7.2 million
- P.V. Sindhu (India) - Badminton - $7.1 million
- Leylah Fernandez (Canada) - Tennis -$7 million
- Lydia Ko (New Zealand) - Golf - $6.9 million
- Ons Jabeur (Tunisia) - Tennis - $6.5 million
2. Merriam-Webster announces 'Gaslighting' as its Word of the Year for 2022
The world's renowned publisher 'Merriam Webster' has declared the word 'Gaslighting' as the Word of the Year for 2022.
Meaning of Gaslighting
The dictionary defines the term as: "The act or practice of grossly misleading someone especially for one’s own advantage."
Gaslighting refers to playing with someone on a psychological level for a long period of time, so that the victim begins to doubt the validity of their own thoughts and true sense of self.
Gaslighting can also be a corporate ploy to mislead the public.
Gaslighting, in simple language, is cheating psychologically with someone.
Psychological gaslighting is the questioning of reality while manipulating or dominating a person.
Talking to someone in a psychological way, questioning his existence, his truth, his decisions or his memories comes under the ambit of gaslighting.
This word is an emotional abuse. Such behaviour in love or in married life breaks a person completely. He feels himself mentally tortured.
This word came into existence in 1938
The term itself came into existence 80 years ago in 1938 through gas light, Gas Light is a play written by Patrick Hamilton. Two films were made on this play in the 1940s.
Top 5 words of the year 2022
Oligarch: A term derived from the Russian invasion of Ukraine. It means high noble. It is also used for the officers of authoritarian regimes.
Omicron: This is a variant of the coronavirus. This letter is mentioned in the Greek alphabet. Alpha, Beta, Gamma etc are part of this alphabet. Areas in Greater Noida were also named on this basis.
Codify: Converting abortion rights into federal law.
Queen Consort: Camilla, wife of Maharaja Charles, is known by this name.
Raid: The search at Mar-a-Lago home of former President Donald Trump was in the news.
3. Bengaluru ranks second after Beijing in the list of top technology hubs in the Asia-Pacific region
Bengaluru ranks second after Beijing in the list of top technology hubs in the Asia-Pacific region, according to a report by property consultants Cushman & Wakefield.
IMPORTANT FACTS -
- Cushman & Wakefield's latest report titled 'Tech Cities: The Global Intersection of Talent and Real Estate' identifies technology markets based on 14 criteria related to real estate and business environment.
According to the report, Bengaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad and Delhi are the top technology hubs after Beijing in the Asia-Pacific region.
Bengaluru was the leader in India with 2,30,813 technology job creation during the last financial year. It was followed by Chennai (1,12,781 jobs), Hyderabad (1,03,032 jobs) and Delhi (89,996 jobs).
Globally, 46 top tech markets were identified from over 115 tech cities in total, and six of the 14 cities in the Asia Pacific region were in India.
Bengaluru is one of the largest contributors to office space leasing with an average share of 25-30% in annual pan-India leasing activity between 2017 -2021.
The technology sector accounts for an average of 38-40% of the annual leasing activity in the Bengaluru office market, which is higher than the national average of 35%.
4. Karnataka NEP referred 'Pythagoras Theorem' as fake news
A position paper on National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 by the Government of Karnataka has described Pythagoras' theorem as "fake news".
The Pythagorean theorem has been disputed in many international forums. Pythagoras claimed this to be his theory.
The Karnataka NEP mentions a text called the Baudhayana Sulbasutra, in which the specific verse refers to the theorem.
Based on evidence, the existence of the Greek philosopher Pythagoras is believed to be around 570–490 BC.
However, it is believed that mysterious elements were present around him, because of the secretive nature of the school/society he founded in Italy.
Relatively little is known about his mathematical achievements, as no evidence exists of his own writing today.
What is Pythagoras Theorem?
The Pythagorean theorem describes the relationship between the three sides of a right triangle (one of which is 90°).
Its Equation is a² + b² = c²
where a and b are the two perpendicular sides, and c is the length of the diagonal side.
If any two sides of a right triangle are known, the theorem helps you calculate the third side.
Reasons why Vedic mathematicians knew this before Pythagoras?
There are several references in the Sulbasutra, which are written by Vedic Indians and refer to the rituals performed during yaganas.
The oldest of these is the Baudhayana Sulbasutra.
The period of Baudhayana Sulbasutra is not certain. It is inferred on the basis of linguistic and other secondary historical considerations.
In more recent literature, the Baudhayana Sulbasutra is taken from around 800 BCE.
There is a statement in the Baudhayana Sulbasutra called the Pythagorean theorem (this was known as a geometric fact, not a 'theorem').
Yagya rituals included the construction of altars (altars) and fire pits (fire) in various shapes such as isosceles triangles, symmetrical trapezia and rectangles.
The Sulabasutras describe the effort towards producing the prescribed shape of these figures.
How did the Knowledge of Equation Evolve?
The earliest evidence is from the Old Babylonian civilization (1900–1600 BC). They referred to this as the diagonal rule.
The earliest evidence comes from the later period of the Sulbasutras.
The oldest surviving axiomatic proof of the theorem is in Euclid's Elements from about 300 BC.
5. In 2021, over 1.6 lakh Indians renounced citizenship
According to data from the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) over 1.6 lakh Indians renounced their citizenship in 2021, highest in the past five years.
According to statistics, more than 78,000 Indians left Indian citizenship to take US citizenship, which is the highest among all other countries.
362 Indians living in China also acquired Chinese citizenship.
The number of Indians who gave up their citizenship in 2021 is 1,63,370.
Over 9.24 lakh persons gave up their Indian citizenship in the seven-year period between 2015 and 2021.
The number of Indians who renounced citizenship in the years 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 stood at 1,33,049, 1,34,561, 1,44,017 and 85,248 respectively.
Top 10 countries where Indians renounced their citizenship in 2021
United States (78,284 in 2021 and 30,828 in 2020)
Australia (23,533 in 2021 and 13,518 in 2020)
Canada (21,597 in 2021 and 17,093 in 2020)
United Kingdom (14,637 in 2021 and 6,489 in 2020)
Italy (5,986 in 2021 and 2,312 in 2020)
New Zealand (2,643 in 2021 and 2,116 in 2020)
Singapore (2,516 in 2021 and 2,289 in 2020)
Germany (2,381 in 2021 and 2,152 in 2020)
The Netherlands (2,187 in 2021 and 1,213 in 2020)
Sweden (1,841 in 2021 and 1,046 in 2020)
What is Citizenship?
Citizenship refers to the relationship between the individual and the state.
Citizenship is listed in the 'Union List' under the Constitution and is within the jurisdiction of Parliament.
The details of the various categories of persons eligible for citizenship in the Constitution are given in Part 2 (Articles 5 to 11).
The Citizenship Act of 1955 specifies five methods of obtaining citizenship, which include birth, descent, registration, naturalization and incorporation of territory.
Methods of relinquishing citizenship in India
An Indian citizen, who is of full age and capacity, may renounce the citizenship of India at will.
If a person takes citizenship of another country, then his Indian citizenship automatically ends because the Indian Constitution provides for single citizenship.
If a citizen violates the Constitution, has obtained citizenship by fraudulent means, engages in illegal trade or communication with the enemy during war, has been residing outside India continuously for 7 years, then the Government of India can terminate his citizenship.
If a citizen has been imprisoned in any country for two years during the five years of the citizenship obtained through registration or naturalization, then his citizenship can also be terminated.
6. I2U2 Summit : UAE to develop integrated food parks across India
The United Arab Emirates on July 14 announced an investment of USD 2 billion to develop a series of integrated food parks across India.
Outcome of the Summit
The decision was announced after the first virtual summit of I2U2 group leaders - Prime Minister Narendra Modi, US President Joe Biden, Israeli Prime Minister Yair Lapid and UAE President Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan.
The Summit was focussed on the food security crisis and clean energy.
Private sectors from the US and Israel will be invited to lend their expertise and provide innovative solutions that contribute to the overall sustainability of the project.
The Summit discussed innovative ways to ensure sustainable, more diverse food production and food delivery systems that can better manage the global food crisis.
The I2U2 group will take forward a 300 MW hybrid renewable energy project in Gujarat with wind and solar capacity.
This was the first summit of this group.
Integrated food parks will incorporate cutting-edge climate-smart technologies to conserve waste, fresh water and employ renewable energy sources in food.
India will provide suitable land for the project and facilitate integration of farmers into food parks.
These investments will help in maximizing crop yields and combating food insecurity in South Asia and the Middle East.
What is the 'I2U2' group?
The I2U2 is a group comprising India, Israel, the U.S., and the UAE, has been called the ‘West Asian Quad’.
The group is known as 'I2U2' with "I" standing for India and Israel and "U" for the US and the UAE.
This view was expressed by U.S. National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan with U.S. President Joe Biden.
The I2U2 grouping was conceptualized during the meeting of foreign ministers of four countries held on 18 October 2021.
Aims of I2U2 Group
I2U2 aims to harness the vibrancy and entrepreneurial spirit of society to address some of the biggest challenges facing the world.
It aims to encourage joint investment in six mutually recognized sectors such as water, energy, transport, space, health and food security.
Appropriate use of private sector capital and expertise to help drive infrastructure modernization, low-carbon development pathways for industries, improve public health, and the development of critical emerging and green technologies.
7. India will surpass China as the most populous country on earth in 2023: UN
According to a report by the United Nations released on 11 July India will surpass China as the most populous country on earth in 2023.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the Population Division has said that the global population is projected to reach eight billion on November 15, 2022.
As per a UN report, the world's population is growing at its slowest pace since 1950. It has fallen under 1% in 2020.
According to the United Nations the world’s population could grow to around 8.5 billion in 2030 and 9.7 billion in 2050.
This year's World Population Day, July 11, marks a milestone, when the birth of the eight billionth person on Earth is expected.
More than half of the projected growth in global population by 2050 will be concentrated in just eight countries of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines and Tanzania.
India’s population in 2022
According to the report, India's population is 1.412 billion in 2022 as compared to China's 1.426 billion.
India, which will overtake China as the world's most populous country by 2023, is projected to have 1.668 billion people in 2050, far ahead of China's 1.317 billion people by the middle of the century.
World’s most populous regions in 2022
The world's two most populous regions in 2022 were East and South-East Asia, with 2.3 billion people, representing 29% of the global population.
Central and Southern Asia, with 2.1 billion, account for 26% of the world's population in 2022.
With a population of over 1.4 billion in 2022, China and India account for the largest populations in these regions.
Outflow of more than 1 million migrants
It is estimated that ten countries experienced a net outflow of more than 1 million migrants between 2010 and 2021.
In many of these countries, these outflows were due to temporary workers leaving their country.
Pakistan (net outflow of -16.5 million during 2010-2021), India (-3.5 million), Bangladesh (-2.9 million), Nepal (-1.6 million) and Sri Lanka (-1 million).
Projections of Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)
Alternative long-term population estimates have also been made by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).
In its recent projections, IHME projected that the global population will reach 8.8 billion in 2100.
8. INS Vikrant successfully completes 4th phase of sea trials
India's first indigenous aircraft carrier (IAC) Vikrant successfully completed the fourth phase of sea trials on 10 July before being inducted into the Indian Navy next month.
INS Vikrant (IAC-I) is the first aircraft carrier built in India by Cochin Shipyard (CSL) in Kochi, Kerala for the Indian Navy.
It is the first Vikrant-class aircraft carrier.
It is also known as the Indigenous Aircraft Carrier 1 or IAC-1.
INS Vikrant can carry a total of 30 aircraft (fighters and helicopters).
It is powered by four gas turbines and can reach speeds of 30 knots (about 55 kmph).
Its endurance is 7,500 knots at a speed of 18 knots (32 kph).
The shipborne weapons include Barak LR SAM and AK-630, while it has MFSTAR and RAN-40L 3D radars as sensors.
The ship is largely based on Russian technology.
The aircraft carrier, built at a cost of around Rs 23,000 crore.
The warship is ready to operate MiG-29K fighter jets, Kamov-31 helicopters and MH-60R multi-role helicopters.
It is 262 metres long, 62 metres wide and it has a height of 59 metres. Its construction began in 2009.
9. NMA recommends two sites connected to Ambedkar to be declared as monuments of national importance
The National Monuments Authority (NMA) on July 9 has recommended the declaration of two sites associated with BR Ambedkar in Gujarat and Maharashtra as monuments of national importance.
These recommendations have been placed before Minister of State for Culture Arjun Ram Meghwal by the National Monuments Authority.
Name the two sites
Sankalp Bhumi banyan tree campus
It is located in Vadodara, Gujrat where Dr. Ambedkar had taken a resolve to eradicate untouchability on 23th September, 1917.
The site is more than a hundred years old and witnesses the beginning of the social respect revolution initiated by Ambedkar, who is regarded as the architect of the Constitution of India.
2. PratapRao Bhosale High School, Satara, Maharashtra
Dr Ambedkar received his primary education in PratapRao Bhosale High School.
This school is under Satara Zilla Parishad and presently the condition of the school is dilapidated.
The school's register still shows the signature of a student, Bhim Rao, in Marathi.
National Monuments Authority (NMA)
Established - in 2010
Ministry - Union Ministry of Culture
Established under The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2010
Composition - a Chairperson and up to 5 Whole Time and 5 Part Time Members and a Member Secretary
The Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is its ex-officio member.
Headquarters - New Delhi
10. Akasa Air Airlines gets Air Operator Certificate
The country's newest airline Akasa Air has received the Air Operator Certificate (AOC) from aviation regulator Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) on 7 July to start its commercial operations.
The AOC Certificate signifies the airline's operational readiness to satisfactorily meet all regulatory and compliance requirements.
Under the supervision of DGCA, the airline concluded the process with a number of flights proving to be successfully operated.
The airline, backed by stock market investor Rakesh Jhunjhunwala, took delivery of its first Boeing 737 MAX aircraft in India on June 21.
Akasa Air is the first airline in India whose end-to-end AOC process was conducted using the government's progressive EGCA digital platform.
It will commence commercial operations at the end in July 2022.
By the end of the financial year 2022-23, the airline will have 18 aircraft and after that, 12-14 aircraft will be added per year.
Last November, Akasa Air announced the order for 72 '737 MAX' aircraft from Boeing.
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA)
It is a statutory body and formed under the Aircraft (Amendment) Bill, 2020.
It investigates aviation accidents and enforces all regulations related to aviation.
It registers and provides certificates to civil aircrafts.
It is attached to the Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India.
It coordinates all regulatory functions with the International Civil Aviation Organisation.