Current Affairs search results for tag: science-and-technology
By admin: Jan. 26, 2023

1. Union Health Minister unveils world’s first intranasal COVID19 vaccine, iNNCOVACC

Tags: Science and Technology National News

Union Health Minister unveils world’s first intranasal COVID19 vaccine, iNNCOVACC

Union Health Minister Dr. Mansukh Mandaviya on 26 January unveiled world’s first intranasal COVID-19 vaccine, iNNCOVACC in New Delhi.

An overview of the news

  • The vaccine was launched in the presence of Dr. Jitendra Singh, Union Minister of State for Science and Technology (Independent Charge).

  • It is developed by Bharat Biotech International Limited (BBIL) in collaboration with Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance (BIRAC).

  • An initial manufacturing capacity of several million doses per year of the vaccine has been established, to be scaled up to one billion doses as needed.

  • iNCOVACC has been priced at Rs 325 per dose.

  • On September 9, 2022, Bharat Biotech's iNCOVACC, the world's first nasal COVID-19 vaccine, was approved for emergency use in adults.

  • On November 28, 2022, Bharat Biotech announced that the vaccine has been approved for restricted emergency use in adults.

About iNCOVACC Vaccine

  • Bharat Biotech's intranasal COVID-19 vaccine is a recombinant replicating adenovirus vectored vaccine.

  • A recombinant vaccine means that it has been manufactured using bacterial cells or yeast cells or parts of a virus to introduce viral proteins into the host.

  • It removes critical parts of the genome of SARS-CoV-2, so that the viral vector can no longer replicate.

  • Phase I, II and III clinical trials of the vaccine have yielded successful results.

  • The vaccine will be given intranasally through drops in the nose, a system that has been designed and developed to be cost-effective in low- and middle-income countries.

  • The maximum temperature range for storage and distribution of iNCOVACC is two to eight degrees Celsius.

Working of iNCOVACC

  • An intranasal vaccine stimulates a broad immune response by producing a wide range of antibodies including neutralising Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal Immunoglobulin A (IgA). 

  • The vaccine also initiates T cell responses. 

  • When the iNCOVACC vaccine is given to an individual, the immune cells in the body express the immobilized spike protein.

  • As a result, the body starts producing antibodies against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.

  • After a person is exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the immune system will block Covid-19 infection in both the upper and lower respiratory tract due to the presence of antibodies.

  • Therefore, iNCOVACC has the potential to block SARS-CoV-2 and prevent the transmission of Covid-19.

By admin: Jan. 21, 2023

2. IIT incubated firm develops indigenous Mobile Operating System

Tags: Science and Technology National News

An IIT Madras incubated firm has developed an indigenous mobile operating system  'Bharos’ that can benefit India's 100 crore mobile phone users.

About Mobile Operating System 'Bharos’

  • The software, named 'Bharos', can be installed on commercial off-the-shelf handsets.

  • It was developed by JandK Operations Pvt Ltd (JandKops), a company set up by the IIT Madras Innovative Technologies Foundation.

  • It provides a secure environment for the users and is a significant contribution towards 'Atmanirbhar Bharat'.

  • It provides access to trusted apps from organisation-specific Private App Store Services (PASS).

  • A PASS provides access to a curated list of apps that have been thoroughly tested and have met certain security and privacy standards of organisations.

  • Its users can be rest assured that the apps they are installing are safe to use.

  • It comes under No Default Apps (NDA). That means users can't be forced to use apps they don't know about or can't trust.

  • Bharos provides 'Native Over The Air' (NOTA) updates that can help keep devices secure.

  • NOTA updates are automatically downloaded and installed on the device without the user needing to manually initiate the process.

By admin: Jan. 19, 2023

3. 'Rare orange coloured bat' spotted in Chhattisgarh's Kanger Ghati National Park

Tags: Science and Technology

A 'rare orange coloured bat' known as 'painted bat' has been spotted in a banana plantation in Parali Bodal village of Kanger Valley National Park in Bastar, Chhattisgarh.

An overview of the news

  • The scientific name of this painted bat is 'Kerivoula picta'. This species has been kept in the category of globally endangered.

  • This species is commonly found in Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  • In India, this bat has so far been seen in the Western Ghats, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha and Kanger valley of Chhattisgarh.

  • The painted bat is characterised by bright orange and black wings, dense orange fur on the back and warm buff underside.

  • There are about 131 species of bats in India and 31 of them are found in the central parts of the country.

  • Kanger Valley National Park

  • Kanger Ghati National Park was established in 1982.

  • The name of this national park is derived from the Kanger River. This park is located in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh, which is spread over an area of about 200 square kilometres.

  • Due to its high biodiversity it has been designated as a Biosphere Reserve.

  • The national park is famous for its limestone caves which also provide a suitable habitat for bats.

  • Other 2 National Parks of Chhattisgarh

  • Indravati National Park

  • Guru Ghasidas National Park

By admin: Jan. 19, 2023

4. NASA awards 425 million to Boeing Company for agency's sustainable flight demonstrator project

Tags: Science and Technology International News

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has awarded $425 million to The Boeing Company for a sustainable flight demonstrator project.

An overview of the news

  • Boeing will work with NASA to validate technologies aimed at 'building, testing and flying a full-scale demonstrator aircraft and reducing emissions'.

  • Over seven years, NASA will invest $425 million, while Boeing and its partners will contribute the remainder of the agreement, estimated to cost $725 million.

  • The Transonic Truss-Braced Wing Demonstrator Single-Aisle is an aeroplane that aims to reduce fuel consumption and emissions by up to 30 percent.

  • The goal of the project is to produce and test a full-scale demonstrator that will help build future fuel-efficient commercial airliners.

  • The United States has set a goal of achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions from the US aviation sector by 2050.

About NASA 

  • NASA was formed under the National Aeronautics and Space Act on July 19, 1948, in place of its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).

  • NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  • Headquarters- Washington D.C.

  • Administrator - Bill Nelson

By admin: Jan. 18, 2023

5. Technology for Air Quality Monitoring System launched by MeitY

Tags: Environment Science and Technology

The Secretary, MeitY, Alkesh Kumar Sharma has launched the Technology for Air Quality Monitoring System (AI-AQMS v1.0) developed under MeitY supported projects on 17 January in New Delhi.

An overview of the news

  • Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Kolkata has developed an outdoor air quality monitoring station in collaboration with TeXMIN, ISM, Dhanbad.

  • It has been developed under the 'National Program on Electronics and ICT Applications in Agriculture and Environment (AgriEnIcs)'.

  • It will monitor environmental pollutants which include parameters like PM 1.0, PM 2.5, PM 10.0, SO2, NO2, CO, O2, ambient temperature, relative humidity etc. for continuous air quality analysis of the environment.

  • The transfer of technology (ToT) was done at MeitY, New Delhi in which a ToT agreement has been signed between Senior Director & Centre Head, C-DAC, Kolkata and Dr. Deepa Taneja, CEO, J.M.EnviroLab Private Limited.

By admin: Jan. 17, 2023

6. NASA's James Webb Space Telescope discovers new exoplanet named LHS 475b

Tags: Science and Technology

Recently, a new exoplanet named LHS 475b has been discovered by the James Webb Space Telescope of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  • LHS 475b

  • It is roughly the same size as Earth, with a diameter of 99% that of Earth.

  • It is a celestial, rocky planet located approximately 41 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Octane.

  • It differs from Earth in two respects, first that it completes one orbit in only two days and secondly it is hundreds of degrees hotter than Earth.

  • It is closer to Earth than any other planet in our solar system.

  • It orbits very close to a red dwarf star and completes a complete orbit in just two days.

  • Exoplanet:

  • Exoplanets are planets that orbit other stars and are away from our solar system. The first confirmation of the detection of an exoplanet was in the year 1992.

  • According to NASA, more than 5,000 exoplanets have been discovered so far.

  • Scientists believe that there are more planets than stars because at least one planet orbits each star.

  • Exoplanets come in different sizes. They can be large and gaseous like Jupiter and small and rocky like Earth. There is also variation in their temperature, which can range from extremely hot (Boiling Hot) to extremely cold (Freezing Cold).

By admin: Jan. 16, 2023

7. Entire country to be covered by doppler weather radar network by 2025

Tags: Science and Technology National News

doppler weather radar network by 2025Union Minister of State for Earth Sciences, Dr Jitendra Singh on 15 January informed that by 2025, the entire country will be covered by Doppler weather radar network so that extreme weather events can be predicted more accurately.

An overview of the news

  • The accuracy of the meteorological department's forecast regarding severe weather has improved by about 40 per cent in the last eight to nine years.

  • In this sequence, by 2025, there will be a Doppler radar network across the country. The number of Doppler radars in the country has increased from 15 in 2013 to 37 in 2023.

  • India will set up 25 more radars in the next two to three years, taking the number to 62.

  • Speaking on the occasion of the 148th Foundation Day of the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the minister said with the improvement in forecasting, the disaster-related death rate has come down to single digit.

  • IMD commissioned four Doppler Weather Radars (DWRs) in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir. This will strengthen the weather monitoring capabilities in the Western Himalayan region.

  • These were installed at Surkanda Devi in Uttarakhand, Jot and Murari Devi in Himachal and Banihal Top in Jammu and Kashmir.

What is Doppler Weather Radar?

  • It is a special type of radar that uses the Doppler effect to generate velocity data about objects at a distance.

  • It is designed to improve accuracy in long range weather forecasting and monitoring using a parabolic dish antenna and a foam sandwich spherical radome.

What is Radar (Radio Detection and Ranging)?

  • It is a device that uses electromagnetic waves in the microwave region to detect the location, height, intensity, and speed of moving and non-moving objects.

What is the Doppler effect?

  • It refers to the change in wave frequency during the relative motion between a wave source and its observer. 

  • It was discovered by Johann Doppler, who described it as a process of increasing or decreasing the luminosity of stars depending on the relative motion of the star.

By admin: Jan. 14, 2023

8. Dr Jitendra Singh launches “Geospatial Hackathon”

Tags: Science and Technology National News

Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology Dr Jitendra Singh on 14th January launched “Geospatial Hackathon” to promote Innovation and Start-Ups in India’s Geospatial ecosystem.

An overview of the news

  • The hackathon will promote innovation and startups in the geospatial ecosystem of India.

  • The objective of this hackathon is not only to foster partnerships between the public and private geospatial sectors, but also to strengthen the geospatial start-up ecosystem of our country.

  • The "Geospatial Hackathon" will end on March 10, 2023 and will have two sets of challenges - Research Challenge and Startup Challenge.

  • There will be 4 winners to be found for the best solution to the geospatial select problem statements.

  • The minister invited the youth of the country to participate and contribute in building the country's geospatial economy.

  • Half of India's population is below 40 years of age and very ambitious.

  • The Indian start-up economy has crossed a major milestone as India's 100th start-up joins the unicorn club in 2022.

By admin: Jan. 14, 2023

9. EU Inaugurates First Mainland Satellite Launch Port

Tags: Science and Technology International News

European officials and Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf inaugurated the EU's first mainland orbital launch complex on 13 January during a visit to Sweden by members of the European Commission, which is the 27-nation bloc's executive arm.

An overview of the news

  • The European Union is looking to boost its ability to launch small satellites into space with a new launchpad in arctic Sweden.

  • The new facility inaugurated at the Esrange Space Center near the city of Kiruna will complement the EU's current launching capabilities in French Guiana.

  • The tiny satellites are vital for tracking natural disasters in real time and helping to guarantee global security in light of Russia's war in Ukraine.

  • The total number of satellites could reach 100,000 by 2040 as compared to the current 5,000 operational satellites.

European Union (EU) 

  • It is an international organisation made up of European countries, which was formed in 1993.

  • It is a group of 27 countries that act as a cohesive economic and political bloc.

  • 19 of these countries use the euro as their official currency.

  • Its goal is to promote peace and the well-being of all citizens of the EU.

  • Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium

By admin: Jan. 13, 2023

10. Startup firm IG Drones develops India's first 5G-enabled drone

Tags: Science and Technology National News

Tech startup firm IG Drones has developed India's first 5G-enabled drone capable of vertical take-off and landing.

An overview of the news

  • This drone has been named Skyhawk.

  • It can be used in other areas apart from defence and medical applications.

  • The Skyhawk can fly for about five hours with a payload of 10 kg, as this drone is also equipped with capabilities like artificial intelligence and thermal imaging.

  • Due to the facility of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL), it does not require any special runway or track for take-off or landing, so it can be operated in any area.

  • The drone is IP67 rated and can be controlled through a combination of NavIC + GPS navigational satellites.

  • This drone can travel 100 km in 12 to 15 minutes at its maximum speed.

About IG Drones

  • IG Drones is an India-based tech company providing drone survey, mapping and inspection services.

  • It was established at Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology in Sambalpur, Odisha.

  • Its headquarter is located in New Delhi.