India votes against UN draft resolution on climate change

Tags: International News

  • India voted against a draft resolution at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) linking climate to security. This resolution was moved by Niger, which holds the UNSC presidency for December. It was also sponsored by Ireland.
  • Niger organized a debate titled ‘Maintenance of international peace and security: security in the context of terrorism and climate change”. One of the objectives of the debate was to examine how terrorism and security risks could be linked to climate change.
  • The resolution was vetoed by Russia even though 12 countries voted in its favour with China abstaining from the vote and India voting against it.

India’s views

 Government of India’s views was put forward by India’s Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations, T.S. Tirumurti. According to him 

  • It was an attempt to shift climate talks from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to the Security Council and a “step backward” for collective action on the issue.
  • As per India, the reason countries were attempting to bring climate talks to the Security Council was that decisions could be taken as per the will of a few states who can veto any resolution  without consensus or the involvement of most developing countries, which is clearly neither desirable nor acceptable.
  • The draft resolution, as per India, would undermine progress made at Glasgow, where the latest round of talks under the UNFCCC, the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26), concluded in November.

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

  • It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, recommending the admission of new UN members to the General Assembly, and approving any changes to the UN Charter.
  • Its powers include establishing peacekeeping operations, enacting international sanctions, and authorizing military action. 
  • Under the Charter of the United Nations, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions.
  • The Security Council consists of fifteen members, of which five are permanent:
  • The People's Republic of China, 
  • The French Republic, 
  • The Russian Federation, 
  • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and 
  • The United States of America.
  • Permanent members can veto any substantive resolution
  • The remaining ten members are elected on a regional basis to serve a term of two years. 
  • The body's presidency rotates monthly among its members.
  • The current temporary members are-
  • Estonia (2021)
  • India (2022)
  • Ireland (2022)
  • Kenya (2022)
  • Mexico (2022)
  • Niger (2021)
  • Norway (2022)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2021)
  • Tunisia (2021)
  • Viet Nam (2021)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

  • UNFCCC established an international environmental treaty to combat "dangerous human interference with the climate system", in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. It is highly targeted towards sustainable development.
  • It was signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. 
  • The secretariat of the UNFCCC was established in Geneva in 1992 and was later shifted to Bonn, Germany in 1995.
  • The Kyoto Protocol, which was signed in 1997, was the first implementation of measures under the UNFCCC to control the emission of greenhouse gases to deal with global warming. 
  • The Kyoto Protocol came into force in 2005 and it was replaced by the Paris Agreement of 2016.

Conference of Parties(COP)

  • The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the UNFCCC. It meets annually to assess the progress made by the member countries in dealing with climate change. 
  •  The 26th COP was held at  Glasgow, Scotland, UK from 31st October to 13th November 2021.
  • The 27th COP 2022 will be held from 7th to 18th November 2022 at Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.

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