Over 190 nations adopt landmark biodiversity pact to restore natural ecosystems

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Over 190 nations adopt landmark biodiversity pact to restore natural ecosystems

Chaired by China and hosted by Canada, the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15) of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the "Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework" (GBF), which sets four goals and 23 targets for 2030.

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework" (GBF)

  • Over 190 nations of the world on 19 December agreed on a historic package of measures deemed critical to addressing the dangerous loss of biodiversity and restoring natural ecosystems.

  • The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework provides a global roadmap for the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystems for the next decade.

  • The objective of the Framework is to catalyze, enable and inspire urgent and transformative action by governments and local governments, with civil society participation, to prevent biodiversity loss.

  • In this, four goals and 23 targets have been set which are to be achieved by 2030.

Four global goals

Goal 1 

  • Maintain, enhance or restore the integrity, connectivity and resilience of all ecosystems, while significantly increasing the area of natural ecosystems by 2050.

  • Stop human-induced extinction of known threatened species and reduce the extinction rate and risk of all species tenfold by 2050.

Goal 2 

  • By 2050, the sustainable use and management of biodiversity for the benefit of present and future generations and the valuing and promotion of nature's contribution to people, including ecosystem functions and services.

Goal 3 

  • Monetary and non-monetary benefits from the use of genetic resources, and digital sequence information on genetic resources, and traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources, to be shared fairly and equitably with indigenous peoples and local communities.

Goal 4 

  • Adequate means of implementation, including financial resources, capacity-building, technical and scientific cooperation, and access and transfer of technology to fully implement the Kunmin-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework in a safe and secure way for all parties, especially developing countries be equally accessible.

Global targets

  • Effective conservation and management of at least 30 per cent of the world's lands, inland waters, coastal areas and oceans, with emphasis on areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and services. At present, only about 17% of land and 7% of oceans are protected.

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